Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Reasons for Writing a Research Proposal Tips & Guide

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Friday, May 15, 2020

What affects customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 21 Words: 6291 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Analytical essay Tags: Customer Service Essay Did you like this example? Introduction: Aim of Project: Perception of Chinese restaurant in the U.S: What affects customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions? Objectives: To analyse the customers behavioural intentions for Chinese restaurant in U.S. To analyse the perception of Chinese restaurant in the U.S. To evaluate and analyse what affects customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions. The United States is a multicultural and multiethnic nation and this national trend of diversity is expected to consistently increase (Josiam and Monteiro, 2004; Sukalakamala and Boyce, 2007). One reflection of this cultural and ethnic diversity is the variety and prosperity of ethnic restaurants in the American foodservice market. The U.S. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "What affects customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions?" essay for you Create order ethnic food market generates $75 billion in annual sales, around 65% of which is attributed to the foodservice industry (US ethnic food market, 2005). Yet, the fast growth of ethnic restaurants is not driven entirely by the growing number of new immigrants. In fact, 75% of ethnic food consumption comes from non-ethnic customers (US ethnic food market, 2005). As lifestyles change and dining out becomes more and more commonplace, many customers desire new flavours and experiences. Along with this popularity is the rapid development of Chinese restaurants. According to Chinese restaurants news (2007), there are about 43,139 Chinese restaurants in the United States, which is more than the total number of all McDonalds Wendys and burger king domestic outlets combined. Chinese restaurants generate over $17.5 billion annual sales, accounting for about one fourth of overall annual sales generated by ethnic restaurants in the U.S. (Chinese Restaurant News, 2007). Known for its good taste and great value for the price, Chinese cuisine is among the big three most popular ethnic cuisines in the U.S. food service market (National Restaurant association, 1995). It is estimated that 90% of the American population has tried Chinese food and 63% of Americans eat Chinese food each month (George, 2001). Facing more sophisticated American consumers and increasing competition in the restaurant industry, Chinese restaurants can no longer succeed by depending on good taste or low price alone. According to National Restaurant Association (2000a,b), due to an increased familiarity with ethnic food. American consumers attitudes toward ethnic cuisine have recently changed. Today, an exotic experience is not enough to attract consumers to an ethnic restaurant. Customers are no longer willing to trade off inferior service or atmosphere for an opportunity to try new flavours. They prefer an excellent overall dining experience. Moreover, Chinese restaurants are facing increasing challenges from other emerging Asian restaurants and from the changing tastes of American customers who prefer healthy or spicy food. Therefore, a better understanding of the key attributes influencing customer satisfaction and post dining behavioural intentions in Chinese restaurants will provide important practical implications for Chinese restaurants operators. Literature review: At all stages in the elaboration of a dissertation, the author must exert control over both the content and the way it is organised. The literature review is what shows that the author understand the chosen topic and keeps to the aim. In researching for your dissertation or project, you will generally be expected to source material for yourself says MacMillan (2007, p.61). Meanwhile, Swetnam (2005, p.76) gives examples and his definition is that the literature review is central to the dissertation and in all styles of work. It has a number of functions, for example, it shows that you have read widely around your chosen topic, it demonstrates your critical understanding of the theory; it informs and modifies your own research. White (2006, p.83) gives a newer definition that the literature review will help you to discuss the dissertation in its relevant context, together with any theoretical frameworks which may be involved. It may also trigger your imagination and help you set the wo rk in a new and different light because the author learns and understands more, which can stimulate further analysis. Research Method: The researcher need way to get the data will be from books, magazines, newspaper and through internet. As there are so many websites, no. of books, newspaper and magazines from where researcher will get updated information regarding the research. Through qualitative method the researcher will be able to find out easier way for doing research and by getting direct information related with the research. And the other thing is that in qualitative method accuracy rate is good not all time but, mostly.Quantitative method also very helpful to do the research. Code of Ethics: The world tourism organisation developed a code of ethics. This is recognition of the need to enshrine many of the principles of global action on the environment and the rights of tourists and workers. The basic principles inherit in the code are: 2 Table of contents Implementation of the principles of the code of ethics of hospitality. Mutual understanding and respect between peoples and societies. Restaurant as a beneficial activity for host countries and communities. Summary: This work will introduced the conceptual issues associated with the research of customer satisfaction from Chinese restaurant in US and also demonstrate what is happening with people of the local community. Chapter: 2 Literature Review Literature Review: An Introduction At all stages in the elaboration of a dissertation, the author must exert control over both the content and the way it is organised. The literature review is what shows that the author understand the chosen topic and keeps to the aim. In researching for your dissertation or project, you will generally be expected to source material for yourself says MacMillan (2007, p.61). Meanwhile, Swetnam (2005, p.76) gives examples and his definition is that the literature review is central to the dissertation and in all styles of work. It has a number of functions, for example, it shows that you have read widely around your chosen topic, it demonstrates your critical understanding of the theory, it informs and modifies your own research. White (2006, p.83) gives a newer definition that the literature review will help you to discuss the dissertation in its relevant context, together with any theoretical frameworks which may be involved. It may also trigger your imagination and help you set the wo rk in a new and different light because the author learns and understands more, which can stimulate further analysis. Chapter: 1 Ethnic cuisine development and Chinese restaurants in the US. In the past few decades, with the influx of new immigrants as well as diversifying tastes of Americans, ethnic foods have become widely available and increasingly popular in the U.S. food service market (Josiam and monteiro, 2004). Traditional ethnic cuisines such as Italian, Mexican and Cantonese Chinese have become so familiar to American customer that they are perceived as mainstream American foods (Mills, 2000). In the meanwhile, many emerging ethnic cuisines such as Caribbean, Mediterranean and Pan Asian have also gained wide acceptance in recent years (US ethnic food market, 2005). Chinese cuisine arrived in the U.S. with the first railroad construction workers brought over to the west coast of the U.S. in the nineteenth century (Freeman, 2008). From the first Cantonese style Chinese restaurant opened in San Francisco in 1849, it rapidly penetrated towns and cities all over the U.S. and became part of the American experience (Chen and Bowen, 2001). Cantonese style cuisine, characterised by its light sweet and sour flavours, is the most popular Chinese cuisine in the U.S. In the recent years, other styles of Chinese cuisine have also become familiar to American customers, such as Szechwan, Hunan and Mandarin styles. The first two styles are famous for their hot and spicy flavours, while the last one is characterised by light, elegant and mildly seasoned foods (George, 2001). According to the National Restaurant Association (1995), customer perceived Chinese cuisine as a great value for the price, good for carryout, rich in flavour and difficult to prepare at ho me. Although there a few Chinese restaurant chains operating in the U.S. such as P. F. Changs China Bistro and Panda Express, most Chinese restaurant has a Chinese name outside, is decorated with Chinese styled pictures and artifacts, such as Chinese brush landscape paintings red lanterns, offers a menu printed in both Chinese and English, and provides Chinese characterised tableware, such as chopsticks and Chinese restaurants have been facing intense competition among themselves due to fast development and expansion in the U.S., as well as from other emerging Asian restaurants such as Indian, Japanese, Korean, Thai and Vietnamese ( Jang et al., 2009). Thus, maintaining customer satisfaction and repeat patronage may be more important for Chinese restaurants than ever before. Chapter: 2 Customer satisfaction and related theories The topic of customer satisfaction has held a significant position in the marketing literature over the decades since satisfied customers can be generate long-term benefits for companies, including customer loyalty and sustained profitability (Homburg et al., 2006). Researchers have explained the mechanism of customer satisfaction with number of distinct theories, such as expectancy-disconfirmation theory (Oliver, 1981), contrast theory (Howard and Sheth, 1969), assimilation or cognitive dissonance theory (Anderson, 1973), equity theory (Oliver and Swan, 1989), and value percept theory (Westbrook and Reilly, 1983). Among them, the most widely accepted theory is the expectancy disconfirmation theory. According to this theory, customers satisfaction judgements are the results of comparisons between customers expectations and perceived performance. If the perceived performance exceeds the expectation, the expectation is positively disconfirmed and the customer is satisfied. On the cont rary, if the perceived performance falls short of the expectation, the expectation is negatively disconfirmed and the customer is dissatisfied. Another influential theory for customer satisfaction is the equity theory. This theory suggests that satisfaction occurs when customers perceived that they have obtained more benefits compared to their cost (e.g. money, time and effort) and perceived value is an appropriate factor in measuring satisfaction (Oliver and Swan, 1989; Yuan and Jang, 2008). Another commonly used theory, the three factor theory, provides a basic explanation for the structure of customer satisfaction. This theory claims that three independent satisfaction factors influence customer satisfaction in different ways (Kano, 1984; Matzler and Sauerwein, 2002). Basic factors are minimum requirement for satisfaction. Failure to fulfil the minimum requirements causes dissatisfaction, whereas fulfilling or exceeding them does not necessarily lead to satisfaction. Excitement factors increase customer satisfaction if delivered but do not cause dissatisfaction if not delivered. Performance factors lead to satisfaction if performance is high and to dissatisfaction if performance is low (Fuller and Matzler, 2008). This theory has been validated empirical studies (e.g. Fuchs, 2004; Matzler et al., 2006) and could provide an additional perspective for understanding the effects of restaurant attributes on customer satisfaction. Basic factors can be seen as the prerequisit es for the satisfaction, signifying that customer take that for granted. Performance factors are a critical competitive area and directly related to customers explicit needs and wants. Excitement factors are unexpected by customers, so they can be a surprise gift that generates extra delight (Fuller and Matzler, 2008). Chapter: 3 Behavioural Intentions Behavioural intention can be defined as the degree to which a person has formulated conscious plans to perform or not perform some specified future behaviour (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). According to the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), behavioural intention is the motivational component of a volitional behavioural and is highly correlated with behaviour itself (Jang and Feng, 2007). Although there are still arguments about the level of correlation between behavioural intentions and actual actions, it seems to be generally agreed that behavioural intention is a reasonable variable for predicting future behaviour (Quelette and Wood, 1988). Thus, a good understanding of the determinants of favourable post-dinning behavioural intentions such as saying positive things about the restaurant, recommending the restaurant to others, and repeat purchasing can provide practical guidance for restaurant practitioners. Another construct that is highly related to behavioural intentions is customer satisfaction. It is regarded as one of the key antecedents of post purchase behavioural intentions because customer satisfaction has a positive effect on the customers attitude towards the product or service and can reinforce the customers conscious effort to purchase the product or service again in the future (Oliver, 1989, 1999). However, previous studies have also suggested that factors that influence customer satisfaction are not always in accordance with factors influencing customer behavioural intention, for example, Sulek and Hensley (2004) found that food, atmosphere, and fairness of the seating order were all significant predictors of a customers overall dining satisfaction, but only food quality predicted post-dining behavioural intention. In examining food quality in restaurants, Namkung and Jang (2007) reported that food temperature had a significant effect on customer satisfaction but no effe ct on behavioural intention. Conversely, healthy options were a direct determinant of behavioural intentions but did not influence customer satisfaction. Therefore, there is a practical need to investigate the effects of restaurant attributes on both customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Chapter: 4 Factors influencing customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions in restaurants Reuland et al. (1985) suggested that hospitality services consist of a harmonious mixture of three elements: the material product, the behaviour and attitude of the employees, and the environment. Berry et al. (2002) also proposed three categories of cues that present themselves in the service experience: functional cues (technical quality of service), mechanic cues (nonhuman elements in the service environment) and humanic cues (behaviour of service employees). Based on these propositions, the basic restaurant attributes can be said to be include food, service and environment. Though a literature review of dining satisfaction and behaviour intention, all three basic elements were found to directly or indirectly contribute to customers overall satisfaction with a restaurant experience and their post dining behavioural intentions. Chapter: 5 Food Quality As the core product of a restaurant, food plays a pivotal role in the restaurant experience. Food quality has been generally accepted as major factor influencing customer satisfaction and post dining behavioural intention. For example, Dube et al. (1994) measured the relative importance of seven restaurant attributes in repeat purchase intention in an upscale restaurant setting and found that food quality was far more important to restaurant customers than all others attributes, Sulek and Hensley (2004) investigated the relative importance of food and physical setting, and service in a full-service restaurant and found that food quality was the most important factor influencing satisfaction and the only factor predicting behavioural intention. Namkung and Jang (2007) evaluated the relationship of individual attributes that constitute food quality (e.g. food presentation, menu variety, healthy options, taste, food freshness and temperature) with customer satisfaction and behavioural i ntentions. The findings indicated that food presentation, taste and temperature were significantly related to customer satisfaction whereas food presentation, taste and healthy options (instead of temperature) were significant predictors of behavioural intention. Besides the above- mentioned six individual attributes, food safety is also an important cue for evaluating food quality. Although food-safety defects are not always immediately apparent, customers do tend to notice undercooked food, food with an off taste, or foreign material in their food (Sulek and Hensley, 2004). Thus, food may serve as the most basic and lowest standard when judging quality. Service Quality: In the service literature, perceived service quality is defined as the customers judgement of the overall excellence or superiority of the service (Zeithaml, 2008). It is the customers subjective evaluation, resulting from a comparison of expectations and perceived performance. SERVQUAL (Parasuraman et al, 2008) is the instrument most often used for measuring perceived service quality in the marketing literature. It consists of five service dimension, namely, tangibles (physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel), reliability (ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately), and responsiveness (willingness to help customers and provide prompt service), assurance (knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence) and empathy (caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers). To adapt SERVQUAL to the restaurant industry, Stevens et al. (2005) modified several items from the original SERVQUAL and d eveloped DINESERV to measure perceived service quality in restaurants. In the restaurant industry, since customers not only evaluate the quality of food but also the service encounters during their dining experience, perceived service quality is seen as another core determinant of customers satisfaction and behavioural intention. For example Kivela et al. (2009) proposed a comprehensive model for dining satisfaction and return patronage. Their study indicated that the probability of return patronage was dependent on customers satisfaction with five aspects of a restaurant: first the last impressions, service quality, and ambience quality, food quality and feeling comfortable eating there and reservation and parking. Ladhari et al. (2008) investigated determinants of dining satisfaction and post-dining behavioural intentions, and concluded that perceived service quality influenced customer satisfaction through both positive and negative emotions, Customer satisfaction, in turn, influ enced recommendations, customer loyalty and willingness to pay more. Their results suggested that compared with food quality/reliability, physical design and price, service responsiveness was the most important contributor to customer satisfaction. ATMOSPHERICS Atmospherics is perceived as the quality of the surroundings space. According to Kotler (2006) it is the conscious designing of space to produce specific emotional effects in buyers that enhance their purchase probability. Atmospherics is made up of a set of elements, such as music, lighting, colour and scent. Research in environmental psychology has suggested that atmospherics has a powerful impact on peoples emotions, attitude and behaviour. Mehrabian and Russell (2005) first introduced a theoretical model to explain the impact of environmental stimuli on individual behaviour. The model claims that the physical environment could influence peoples emotional response (such as pleasure and arousal), which in turn elicits approach or avoidance behaviour toward the environment. The model has gained consistent support from the numerous empirical studies in different service settings, such as retail stores and hotels (Baker and Cameroon, 2006). In the restaurant context, Ryu and Jang (2007) explored the combined effect of multiple atmospheric variables on behavioural intentions in upscale restaurants. Their findings supported that ambience (example music, aroma, and temperature) and employee appearance had the most important influence n customers post dining behavioural intentions. OTHER FACTORS-PRICE FAIRNESS AND AUTHENCITY Besides food, service and atmospherics, perceived price fairness could be another factor that influences the customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions (Bei and Chiao, 2007). It is based on consumer internal reference prices, which could be generated by the last price paid, the price most frequently paid and the market prices in similar transactions (Kahneman et al.2006). This principle posits that firms are entitled to a reasonable profit and customers are entitled to a reasonable price. An increase in price is preserved to be fair if it is due to a cost increase. Otherwise, it is preserved to be unfair if the price is increased without any underlying cost increase. Perceived fairness of price is found to be positively related to customer satisfaction and loyalty (Bei and Chiao, 2007), whereas perceived unfairness of price can lead to immediate negative attitudinal and behavioural responses such as dissatisfaction, complaining and switching to other providers (Xia et al. 2005) . Authenticity is an attribute that could be specifically relevant to ethnic restaurants. Authenticity refers to whether the food and ethnic origin. In other words, the environment and cuisines are not adjusted to meet local tastes and customers who are familiar with the culture of the ethnic origin can be judging its authenticity (Ebster and Guist 2006). Compared with Americans restaurants, ethnic restaurants usually make use of ethnic art, decor, music and customers. Some scholars even describe ethnic restaurants as cultural ambassadors of the home country and the dining experience in an ethnic as culinary tourism (Wood and Munoz, 2006). Summary Based on the literature review, this study investigated customer perception of Chinese restaurant in terms of food related attributes service related attributes, atmosphere related attributes and other attributes (price and authenticity), and identified the key attributes affecting customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Research Method Chapter: 3 Research Method Research Method Introduction: Methodology is the study of methods and it raises all sorts of philosophical questions about what it is possible for researcher to know and how valid their claims to knowledge might be (Fisher, 2007, p.40) The researcher has to consider the nature of the setting being studied or the question being asked, as well as any possible limitations on the study, such as time and resources. Resources may be human being or monetary resources, or research tools such as computers or computer assisted telephone interviewing laboratories. There also needs to be to be a match between the study topic and methodology. For example, a research question that seeks to determine the size of the visiting friends and relatives market in an area would use a quantitative methodology, not a qualitative methodology, because the focus is on quantification. A methodology is a systematic and orderly approach taken towards the collection and analysis of data so that information can be obtained from those data. Data are raw, specific, undigested and therefore largely meaningless; information, in contrast, is what you get when data have been arranged in such a way that uncertainty is lessened, queries resolved, and questions answered. In the words of Jankowicz (2005, p.220) Everything you do in your empirical work should be directed to the one end of gathering and presenting data from which information can be easily and simply derived. Veal (2006, p. 125) The research approach: The author will use primary sources in the dissertation. Two interviews will be conducted: with one member of Dancing Dragon, Teesside (one of manager ) with one regular customer of Dancing Dragon restaurant The two chosen people one from Dancing Dragon and another from a regular customer of Chinese restaurant. Therefore, that customer will be capable of answering all questions and give new examples. The experience for the author is important because the answers will be based on true stories, examples and theories that are necessary for the dissertation. The interviews will be done by email and telephone, which could give the author an opportunity to gain some extra information if the interview exceeds the prepared questions and some new information will come from the interviews. Practicality of research: The interviews are a very good research method and are also practical. The information gained in the process is something new because it is primary source, then from secondary source, which must be checked. Primary source data can help the help to avoid incorrect or approximate information to learn and present further on, there is no need for the author to check it before including it in the dissertation. Also, Face to face interview can also help the author to conduct the interviews on time. The appointments must be made on time and dates are set, interviewees will not have chance to put off the interviews. Finally, it is an interesting process for the author. Sitting with a lot of books or magazine articles in the learning centre sometimes does not arise any interest in the author and the creativity in this case is poor, but to go out and to speak with people makes impressive ideas and final work can differ a lot. Five Codes of Ethics: The author of this dissertation will comply with five codes of ethics, and they will also be the limitations: will not collect information in such a way that participants are not aware of it will explain for what purpose information is required will choose to interview random individuals and will not exert pressure of any kind on them will not change information provided by participants will maintain confidentially at the request of participants The author will strictly follow the Five Codes of Ethics to avoid unnecessary misunderstanding that could develop between the author and interviewees. It is important to respect the interviewees wishes if they have them. It is the best way to say Thank You to respect for the time they have devoted and the knowledge for the author. Methodology: Methodology is the philosophical framework with which the research is conducted or the foundation upon which the research is based. To word it differently, methodology is the rationale for the particular methods you use in your researching and in that type of research in general says Berman (2006, p. 12). That means that methodology is needed to provide the author with the means to find the research needed for the written dissertation. For the purpose of this research, the primary data will consist of two interviews and they will cover all three objectives, first, with one regular customer of Dancing dragon restaurant and the second with one member of the Chinese restaurant. The interviews will be conducted through email and telephone , and will be formal. There will be 10 questions. The interviews will give advice from people who have substantial experience in the industry. Primary and Secondary Data: Data can be drawn from both primary and secondary sources. A secondary source of information already exists and has been gathered by someone else. Official statistics, previous studies, journal, magazine and newspapers articles are all sources of secondary information, and will be used in the research project for findings, analysis and recommendations. There are many styles of primary research experiments, ethnographic research and surveys. Bedford (2006, p.61) defines primary data which comes from the source at the time of the event; it may be a report, newspaper article, film footage, or a live or recorded interview. That means that primary data are something that is not from sources that are already available to each student, but what he/she has studied or gained from the information by doing some research on his /her own. Many courses of study require students to engage in some form of primary research activity. In this dissertation, there will be questionnaires for people selected for the research. An advantage is that information which will be found is something new and unreached, but the limitations may be about the confidentiality of the interviewees if they ask for it. Quantitative and Qualitative Data: Quantitative data encompass a group of methods focusing on quantities and on numbers, scientific research relies heavily on quantitative data. This means it focuses on changes or differences that can be measured. Standardised measurements are used such as number, time, weight, and length, says Cottrell (2008, p.206), so that results are easy to compare unbiased. This source of data is very important and is well appropriate for the project, but at the end check and verify the results, looking for errors and odd results adds Moore (2006, p.139). However, qualitative research can also enhance the rigour and credibility of quantitative research. Qualitative research is founded on the belief that social phenomenon (belief and experiences) can be explained with reference to the wider contexts of lived lives adds Burns (2008, p.231). He adopts the stance that people have knowledge of their own lives and that they can talk about those. Questionnaire and Interview Design: There are two types of interviews, which are classified according to the degree of flexibility. One is unstructured and the second one is structured. The strength of unstructured interview is the almost complete freedom they provide in terms of content and structure. You may formulate questions and raise issues on the spur of the moment, depending upon what occurs to you in the context of the discussion explains Kumar (2005, p.123). A structured interview, continues Kumar (2005, p.126), is when the researcher asks a predetermined set of questions, using the same wording and order of questions, using the same wording and order of questions as specified in the interview schedule is a written list of questions, open ended or close ended, prepared for use by an interviewer in a person to person interaction. In this project, there will be structured interviews with open ended questions, because there are only 20 questions to gain the information needed for the project. This means that the research methods for this project are qualitative. Summary: Basically methodology is the rationale for the particular methods the researcher uses in the research to gather the needed information. For this report, author will obtain information from these methods primary Findings Chapter: 5 Research Findings Findings Introduction: Findings: Demographic profile of respondents: Source: mintel 2007 Table one show the results of the respondents demographic and dining profiles. Among the 284 valid respondents, females accounted for 52.5% of diners. The average respondent was 37 years old. The majority of respondents were Caucasian (60.2%), followed by Asian (32%) and other (7.8%). Respondents were most likely to go to a Chinese restaurant with their family (47.6%), followed by friends (27.1%) and relatives (15.2%) and were less likely to dine with business colleagues (2.1%) or by themselves (4.6%). The above customer profile information indicates that the majority of Chinese restaurant customers are Caucasian, and the main reason for dining at Chinese restaurants is social occasions (family and friends). These results are consistent with findings of national Restaurant Association (2000a,b), which revealed that Chinese cuisine represents basic family appeal and attracts almost all consumers (Mills, 2000). Importance of Chinese restaurant attributes: Rank Attributes Mean Std.dev 1 2 3 4 5 Food taste Food safety Food freshness Environmental cleanliness Appropriate food temperature 6.64 6.58 6.55 6.43 6.33 .62 .84 .75 .86 91 Source: mintel 2007 Table 2 reports the attribute importance ranks and scores. Except music, all other attribute have average scores above four, indicating that these attributes are important when customers select a Chinese restaurant. The five most important attributes were taste, food safety, food freshness, environmental cleanliness and appropriate food temperature. These rankings show the salient positions of food quality and environmental sanitation in customers decision-making regarding Chinese restaurants. The five least important attributes were healthy food options, atmospheric, lighting, interior design and decor, and music atmospheric attributes account for four of the five least important factors, indicating that customers do not expect much from the dining environment in Chinese restaurants. However, it is important to keep in mind that the IPA approach identifies relative, rather than absolute, levels of importance. Therefore, when explaining the results of importance ranking, one should not conclude that the dining environment is not important to customers seeking a Chinese restaurant. These attributes are simply less important when compared to other restaurant attributes (i.e. food, service and price). Performance of restaurant attributes for surveyed Chinese restaurant: Rank Attributes Mean Std. dev 1 2 3 4 5 Accurate guest check Food freshness Food taste Prompt service Demand and consistent service 6.15 6.04 6.01 5.96 5.94 .96 2.26 .93 1.08 1.01 The attribute performance ranks and scores are listed in table 3. The mean score of the overall performance was 5.71, indicating that Chinese restaurant as a whole did well in terms of performance. The top five attributes were accurate guest check food freshness, taste, prompt service, and dependable and consistent service. These rankings show that Chinese restaurants provide good taste and satisfying service quality. The lowest five attributes were aroma, lighting, healthy food options, interior design and music. Most of these are atmospherics related attributes, indicating that there is still room for Chinese restaurants to improve their dining environments. Analysis Chapter: 6 Research Analysis  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   Self Reflection Analysis: An Introduction DISUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, CONCLUSIONS The IPA highlights two main findings. First, environmental cleanliness and attentive service are two key areas where improvement efforts should be made by Indian restaurants. Based on the three factor theory of satisfaction, environment and food sanitation may play the role of basic factors (dissatisfier s) in affecting customer satisfaction in Indian restaurants. Failures to meet customer basic cleanliness expectations can result in immediate dissatisfaction and the lost of customer. Thus, Indian restaurant managers should pay special attention to the hygienic conditions of the restaurant, which include not only the cleanliness of the dining area but also of waiting areas and restrooms. Attentive service requires employees to be sensitive to customers individual needs rather than rigidly following fixed policies and procedures (Stevens et al. 2005).To create satisfied customers and repeat patronage, employees should be trained to be attentive to service details and take care of cust omer personal and sometimes trivial requests. Second, food taste and service reliability appear to be the cornerstone factors in customer satisfaction. Among the top ten important restaurant attributes, three of them food related attributes, including taste, food freshness and appropriate food temperature. The three service reliability related attributes were serving food as ordered. Accurate guest check and dependable and consistent service. All six attributes were located in the 2keep up the work2 quadrant indicating that cutomers evaluate Chinese restaurant performances highly on food taste and service reliability. Chinese restaurant should keep up this good performance to maintain their core competency. One noticeable phenomenon in our ipa matrixwas that almost all the atmosphere related attributes were poisoned in the lower priority quadrant. On the one hand this result indicates that customers do not expect much from dining environment when choosing Chinese restaurant. On the other hand the lower priorty quadrant does not necessarily signal that these attributes are unimportant. Atmosphere related attributes may play the role of excitement factor are typically unexpected by the customers, they can more easily generate customer. Satisfaction than the basic factors and performance factors. Therefore, when financial resources are sufficient, Chinese restaurants should improve their interior environment quality and create more favourable dining atmosphere. In particular, they should not ignore the effect of environmental authenticity when designing or decorating a Chinese restaurant. Many customers regard the dining experience in a ethic restaurant as a good opportunity to get to know foreign culture and customs. Chinese restaurant should use various unique Chinese style elements such as a palace lanterns, changes brush drawing and classic music to generate customers interest to explore the restaurant environment and to improve their perception of the overall dining experience. Although healthy options and food authenticity were both located in the low priority quadrant they should be regarded as potential sources of Chinese restaurant to generate new market share. According to Nar 2000 survey todays food trend in the us tend to fall into two categories hot and spicy ethnic cuisine and healthy alternatives. For those Chinese restaurant possessing sufficient financial resources and customer capacity, they could consider developing lower fat items and vegetarian entrees to attract healthy cuisine seekers and vegetarians. For those restaurants that have a relatively high percentage of both Chinese customers and non Chinese customers, they could offer different menus to meet customers distinct requirement for food authenticity. The results of subsequent regression analysis were generally consistent with the main findings of the IPA. Food quality, service quality, atmosphere, authenticity and price were all found to be important contributors to customers satisfaction and behavioural intensions in Chinese restaurant. More specifically, food related attributes explained 46.9% of variance in satisfaction and 47.5% of variance in behavioural intentions. The relatively high values confirmed the key role of food quality for the success of Chinese restaurants. Chapter 9 Self reflection Self Reflection: I think I get another chance to make this project I would have specially taken care of time management because I think in this project I was a bad time manager, I didnt manage my time well enough, left everything for last. Another point is the interviews; I would have taken 2-3 interviews if I would have got another chance, in this project I just took one interview all because of bad time management. I didnt distribute as much questionnaire as I could have. I would keep in mind for the next time. There was lot of pressure on me with lots of assignments at one time. So the ultimate point is that time management is very necessary. But this was the first research project of my life and I learnt lots of new things like taking an interview, how to go with the research flow and many more things. Conclusion Chapter: 8 Conclusions Conclusion Conclusion and Recommendation: This study investigated American customer perceptions of Chinese restaurant and the key restaurant attributes affecting customer satisfaction and behavioural intention. Considering both IPA results, which are descriptive in nature, and regression results, which are statistical in nature, this study provides a more comprehensive picture for Chinese restaurant practitioners to improve service qualities. The findings of the study suggested that food quality, service reliability and environmental cleanliness were prerequisites when customer chose a Chinese restaurant. Food quality (especially taste) and service quality (especially service reliability) were the key attributes for Chinese restaurants success. Dining atmosphere, food authenticity and fair price were also significant contributors to customer satisfaction and behavioural intention. Chinese restaurant managers should reasonably allocate companies resources based on the importance level of each attribute. The results of this study are not without limitations. One main limitation of the study is that the data was collected in only one mid-western town in the U.S. Thus, generalisation of the research findings is not warranted. To ensure external validity, a more comprehensive sample across a diverse geography is needed in future research. In addition, to measure behavioural intentions we used three items, one measuring recommendation and positive word of mouth. Even though many other studies used the same items, these three items alone may not represent the whole picture regarding behavioural intentions, which may cause a content validity problem. Another limitation is that the results in the study should be explained with caution. Previous studies have indicated that at least two assumptions might be questionable: (i) attribute performance and importances are not independent variables. Attribute importance can be interpreted as a function of performance. This condition may influence the attribute distribution pattern in the grid, thus partly influencing managerial recommendations: (ii) the relationship between attribute performance and overall satisfaction might be asymmetrical (Matzler and Sauerwein, 2002; Matzler et al., 2004). If that is the case; the importance of basic factors tends to be overestimated, whereas the importance of excitement factors tends to be underestimated (Vavra, 1997). In order to set the right priorities for customer satisfaction management, any explanation of results should be backed up with regression results, as we did in this study. Finally, as mentioned before, one of the three restaurants where data was collected did not play any background music during the survey period. This may affect the results of the perceived importance and performance of music in Chinese restaurants. Future research is needed to determine whether music plays an important role in influencing customer satisfaction and behavioural intention.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Becks Depression Case Study - 1042 Words

1. INTRODUCTION Shamilka has a history of having a short episode of depression in past and that has been recovered by antidepressant prescribed by the family physician. Even though the time period of this episode is not clear in the case study, she has been suffering from depression symptoms over past 3 years and during the last 6 to 7 months; she has started feeling more depressed. The Beck’s Depression Inventory-II indicates that she is having a low server level of depression. According to the DSM 5, her symptoms and duration indicates she is having Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia). According to the same diagnostic criteria, she also has the symptoms of anxiety for the last six months. Even though there are Obsessive†¦show more content†¦Depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, as indicated by either subjective account or observation by others, for at least 2 years. Note: In children and adolescents, mood can be irritable and duration must be at least 1 year. B. Presence, while depressed, of two (or more) of the following: 1. Poor appetite or overeating 2. Insomnia or hypersomnia 3. Low energy or fatigue 4. Low self-esteem 5. Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions 6. Feelings of hopelessness C. During the 2- year period (1 year for children or adolescents) of the disturbance, the individual has never been without the symptoms in Criteria A and B for more than 2 months at a time. D. Criteria for a major depressive disorder may be continuously present for 2 years. E. There has never been a manic episode or a hypomanic episode, and criteria have never been met for cyclothymic disorder. F. The disturbance is not better explained by a persistent schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, delusional disorder, or other specified or unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder. G. The symptoms are not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or another medical condition (e.g. hypothyroidism). H. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Note: Because the criteria for a major depressive episode includeShow MoreRelatedPostpartum Depression And The Depression1430 Words   |  6 Pagesmothers, but in some cases it can be a time of calamity (Jevitt, Groer, Crist, Gonzalez, Wagner, 2012). Postpartum Depression (PPD) in women after childbirth is a common occurrence. It happens in all races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic statuses. PPD is a severe depression that affects mothers after childbirth. It involves serious depression, sadness, and loneliness. 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Beck theRead MoreApplication Of Psychological Theory And Research Essay1445 Words   |  6 PagesApplication of psychological theory and research to understanding depression The case James was referred to the counselling service for chronic low mood in terms of demonstrating depressed mood, worthless and hopeless feeling, and marked diminished interests or pleasure in university activities and social relationship activities. Based on his background information, it seems that James’ early life experiences and his developed core beliefs of self, world and future have huge impacts on his chronicRead MoreCognitive Behavioral Therapy Essay1372 Words   |  6 Pagesand later modified the model to the A-B-C-D-E approach. In the 1990s Ellis renamed his approach Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. In the 1960s, Aaron Beck, M.D. developed his approach called Cognitive Therapy. Becks approach became known for its effective treatment of depression. Also in the 1960s Maxie C. 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Other measures frequently used in conjunction with PTSD measures include Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) (Verstrael, Van Der Wurff, Vermetten, 2013). These two measures are also used in patients with PTSD as anxiety, depression, and PTSD seem to go hand in hand. In order to be

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Neurospora Crassa Essay Example For Students

Neurospora Crassa Essay Throughout our science education, as students we have always wondered how genes are regulated in a given organism. To better understand biological processes in organisms we can take a look at a biological circuit, a term borrowed from electrical engineering that illustrates the interconnections among proteins or genes (1). Circuits can describe connections needed to regulate a single gene or an entire genome. Through a circuit we can visualize important components and reactions that are otherwise difficult to perceive. In this short study the organism of Neurospora crassa will be farther analyzed. For the first time, it is now possible to place a particular biological circuit like those describing carbon metabolism, transcription, cell cycle, or the biological clock in simple eukaryotes in a larger context, and to examine the coupling of these circuits (12). In this report, we look at a network of reactions for the regulation of the qa cluster . As understood, the qa cluster is compo sed of five genes and two regulatory genes, as seen in the biological circuit Figure 1.1. Three of the genes, qa-2, qa-3, and qa-4, in the cluster encode enzymes involved in the catabolism of quinic acid. One gene, qa-y, encodes a permease allowing quinic acid into the cell, and another gene, qa-x, encodes an unknown function. All seven genes in the cluster are transcriptionally activated by the product of qa-1F, and the activator is repressed by the product of qa-1S. The cluster is glucose- and sucrose-repressed. If this is true then when qa-1F^p is turned off then nothing should be produced and also if abundant portions of qa-1S^p are present then PCA should be present in limited quantities. These simple experiments will allow students such as myself to gain a better understand of what is going on visually and not only in text. Although these experiments may seem obvious, biological circuits are hard to grasp when first looked at, they can be very overwhelming. Methods/Procedures: Once the figure of the qa-cluster circuit was presented all of the equations and variables that take place in the circuit are entered into a template. The template is then uploaded into KINSOLVER workspace. The uploaded template is shown in Figure 1.2. According to this template there are 37 variables and 43 reactions that take place in this particular circuit. First random numbers were entered in the parameters for the qa-1F^p variable then random numbers were entered in the parameters for the qa-1S^p variable. Once certain parameters were chosen, each time a PCA vs. Time graph was illustrated. TrialQuantity of qa-1F^pQuantity of qa-1S^p10 jfix=02103100TrialQuantity of qa-1F^pQuantity of qa-1S^p40 5106100Results: The results are graphed and attached. Trial 1: Figure 1.3Trial 2: Figure 1.4Trial 3: Figure 1.5Trial 4: Figure 1.6Trial 5: Figure 1.7Trial 6: Figure 1.8Conclusions: From the graphs in the figures attached, it can clearly be seen that the qa-1F^p gene is an activator gene. This means when it it is turned off, all the other genes are turned off causing no PCA to be produced. Only when this gene is activated will PCA be produced. If the gene were turned on it would then activate the qa-1F^0, qa-1S^0, qa-y^0, qa-3^0, qa-4^0, qa-2^0, and then finally the qa-x^0 gene. Once all these are activated they each take on their own reactions to create their own products. In our next set of graphs we see as we increase the qa-1S^p product this decreases the amount of PCA produced, which means this is a repressor.

Wednesday, April 15, 2020

Stonehenge1 Essay Example For Students

Stonehenge1 Essay Behind every great structure in the world, there are the people who made them, and who took the time and effort to design them. Those who made Stonehenge succeeded in creating an incredibly complex and mysterious structure that lived on long after its creators were dead. The many aspects of Stonehenge and the processes by which it was built reveal much about the intelligence and sophistication of the civilizations that designed and built the monument, despite the fact that it is difficult to find out who exactly these people were. They have left very little evidence behind with which we could get a better idea of their everyday lives, their culture, their surroundings, and their affairs with other peoples. The technology and wisdom that are inevitably required in constructing such a monument show that these prehistoric peoples had had more expertise than expected. We will write a custom essay on Stonehenge1 specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The planning and assembling of Stonehenge took a very long time (about one thousand years, from 2800 BC to 1500 BC*), and not one but many different groups of people were involved in the process. How they came about plays an important role in understanding them. Some of the first men to come to England that are connected to the Stonehenge builders came when the ice blocking Britain and France melted around 10,000 BC (Souden, 104). After them, many more groups of people came from the mainland, and had great influence on those already living there. The first group involved in the building of Stonehenge was the Windmill Hill people. These people were semi nomadic farmers, mainly just keeping their flocks of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs, and growing wheat, who had arrived as some of the last Neolithic (or New Stone Age, 4300 2200 BC) newcomers in England. Not only were they farmers they also hunted, mined flint, made and traded axes, and could almost be called industrialists. The Windmill Hill people had a very strong religion with a great respect for their dead and their ancestors. They have exceptional collective graves, in the form of long barrows, or long manmade piles of dirt, sometimes 300 feet long. Many riches such as food, tools, and pottery were buried with the dead (Hawkins, 36). The next group to contribute to Stonehenge was the Beaker people, known for the beaker-like pottery they would frequently bury with their dead. These people did not practice the ritual of collective burials, rather single or double burials, and the dead were accompanied by more weapons such as daggers and axes. These single burials were in the form of round barrows. The Beaker people were well organized, active, and powerful, and also probably more territorial (Hawkins, 36). They practiced commerce with other cultures, and their graves give an impression of there being an aristocracy in the society (Niel, 84). The last major group to put time into the construction of Stonehenge was the Wessex culture group. They arrived on Salisbury plain around 1400 BC, and were involved in building the most prominent part of Stonehenge- the great stone circles (Niel, 86). These people were well organized, and probably less aggressive than their predecessors, while more industrious. The people of Wessex were less concerned with war than they were with art, peace, and trade. In the graves of their chieftains (the only members of society who were preserved for afterlife), were goods such as daggers, bows, and various other ornaments. Their access to such treasures can perhaps be attributed to their great international traders who probably traded with people from the Mediterranean Sea area (Hawkins, 37). They built the final phase of Stonehenge, and perhaps brought about many cultural changes to the monument such as giving the monument visual magnificence and more astronomical precision (Service + Bradbery, 255). It is necessary, in order to understand the complexity involved in the assembling of Stonehenge, to know the process by which and the environment in which the monument was built. By the time Stonehenge was built, the landscape around the area on Salisbury Plain was rather open with more farmland and grazing land, and less forest. Underneath the first few feet of soil on Salisbury Plain there was a substantial layer of hard chalk, which made building rudimentary structures somewhat easier for the people of the era. The first phase in building Stonehenge was that of the earth monument, which consisted of a circular bank of dirt (originally about 6 feet tall, now barely 2 feet tall) with a ditch running along the outside of the bank. There are two breaks in the ditch and bank, forming two entrances, and in addition there are 56 Aubrey Holes, named for John Aubrey, their discoverer, in a circle just inside the earth bank (Souden, 30). This first phase, Stonehenge I, built by the Windmill Hill people, took from about 2950 to 2900 BC to construct. Slightly more detailed than the first, the second phase of building Stonehenge involved the creation of a wooden monument. The postholes scattered about the floor of the monument are evidence for this stage. There seem to have been a roughly corridor shaped structure at the southern entrance of the earth monument, and a more detailed setting around the northeastern entrance (Souden, 32). The Avenue, made up of a pair of long, straight, and parallel ditches , was also said to have been part of this second phase of Stonehenge. Stonehenge II could be credited to the Beaker people, approximately betweens the years 2800 and 2300 BC. .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 , .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 .postImageUrl , .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 , .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965:hover , .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965:visited , .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965:active { border:0!important; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965:active , .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965 .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u94f669a1477cc4ef83daa7f5fc6c6965:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Multicultural Education EssayThe third and most impressive stage of the monument is that of the stone monument. Since the building of this phase extended from about 2500 to 1600 BC, it was the longest and most complex of the three, and was so divided up into six sub phases. First in the sequence was the arrival of the bluestones (the first, and smaller, type of stone involved in Stonehenge III), and then the arrival of the sarsen stones (the larger, bulkier stones in Stonehenge III), followed by a possible bluestone arrangement, then the stones were erected to their final settings (after a little rearranging), and finally small holes called the X and Y holes were dug aroun d the outside of the stone circles (Souden, 35). The builders of Stonehenge III were the people of the Wessex Culture, most likely in alliance with other peoples. It is understandable, through all of the complexity shown in the monument, that it many long hours to build and much patience and persistence to complete the construction. The bluestones had to be carried 200 to 250 miles from their source in the Prescelly Mountains back to the Stonehenge site. They were probably carried by waterways for most of the route because waterways are safer, quicker, and less difficult. One probably route was that the stones would be dragged to the coast nearest the Prescelly Mountains, then along the coast of the Bristol Channel, and then into the river systems of England, to the Stonehenge Avenue, and then the stones may have been carried up the Avenue toward the monument. (Hawkins, 65). The most simple was to transport the stones over land is by having a crew of men to haul the stones on rollers. Similar transport methods were used for the sarsen stones, however their location was much more close as the source of the sarsen stone was in the Marlborough Do wns, only about 20 miles north of Stonehenge. There was somewhat of a clear land path for these stones to be carried on, so water transport was minimum. But these stones weighed about 30 tons each, and hauling these stones over 20 miles of hills could have easily used a total of 1,000 men and 7 years to be completed (Hawkins, 66). The sarsen stones were put into large holes in the ground, and joined to their lintels by a mortise-and-tenon joint, and the lintels joined to each other (in the outer circle) with a tongue-and-groove joint (Souden, 88). Much organization skills are needed to coordinate such a large number of men to perform the physical labor of constructing such a monument. The effort put into fabricating this monument is incomparable to anything that would be done today. When all of the constructing, refining, and arranging was finished, the resulting structure was extraordinary.There is an outermost circle (still considerably inside the ditch and bank) of 30 of the sarsen stones, each averaging 13 feet 6 inches tall (Niel, 28), and each connected by a lintel stone to each stone on either side. Just inside that circle of sarsens is a circle of bluestones, smaller stones which are usually not too much more than 6 feet tall. Inside of the bluestone circle is the trilithon horseshoe, or a horseshoe-shaped setting of sarsens in trilithons, or two sarsens standing next to each other with one lintel across the top. The open end of the horseshoe faces the northeast. Inside the trilithon horseshoe is a bluestone horseshoe. Inside the bluestone horseshoe, somewhat towards the center, is the altar stone, which might not have been used for that purpose. At the entrance to the monument, the heel stone stands just south of the line that runs down the center of th e avenue, and not far off lies the slaughter stone, laying on the ground in the break of the circular bank. There are four station stones just inside the earth bank- one that points north, one that points to the south, and two that together make a line perpendicular to the axis of the avenue. The faces of all of the sarsen stones were dressed and shaped, and they were mostly given a convex shape to exaggerate the impression of grandeur one gets when looking up at the monuments. Being that there is little evidence for what Stonehenge could have been created, other than the people buried in and what we directly observe about the monument, there have been many hypotheses about its purpose, and many of these hypotheses seem to be appropriate. Among the most accepted of these conjectures is that the stone monument was meant to be a temple, a burial ground, and, seemingly the most apparent of these, a solar/lunar observatory. The main entrance of Stonehenge that has the Avenues opening, towards which the entire stone monument is situated, points directly at the sunrise on the summer solstice. When standing in the center of the monument, on the longest day of the year, one can see the sun rise directly over the heel stone. This seems to force a viewer to notice the sunrise on the longest day of the year. The original four station stones placed around the circle make many alignments to point to rise and set points of the sun and moon on winter and summer solstices. Noteworthy is that the combination of sun and moon solstice rise and set points could only be collectively arranged in a perfect rectangle at the latitude at which Stonehenge is situated. A few miles north or south and the combination would have to be a parallelogram. (Cohen, 8). In addition to the station stone alignments, each trilithon in the center horseshoe corresponds to certain alignments, as there are two sunset trilithons, a sunrise trilithon, and two for lunar alignments. (Hawkins, 109). Not only does this show that the builders and planners of Stonehenge had a great regard for the heavens, but also that they had great knowledge of geometry and science to be able to find exact angle measurements and proportions. .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd , .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd .postImageUrl , .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd , .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd:hover , .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd:visited , .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd:active { border:0!important; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd:active , .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u922a73e19a3872c70c41a9fd3ae567fd:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Essay about The Success Of President Obama EssayIt can also be seen that the Aubrey Holes could be used as a system of predicting eclipses. The 56 Aubrey Holes correspond to 3 cycles of the moons orbital wobble (The moons orbit wobbles in cycles of 18.66 years) and these could be used to line up with various solar alignments in Stonehenge to predict when the sun and moon would be at the same point in the sky. (White, 194). By a system of moving three markers around the 56 positions of the Aubrey holes, when all three were in the same spot, an eclipse was to occur. (Dimitrikopoulos, file: enigma.cfm). Within places in Stonehenge, such as the Aubrey Holes and the outer ditch , cremation remains of almost hundreds of people were found. This infers that Stonehenge was used as a primary burial site in the Stone and Bronze Ages*. Remarkable is that a great amount of cremations were found on the southeast side of the circle, which is where the moon rises at its most southerly point (Bragard, Ancient Voices). The many cultures of the Neolithic and Bronze ages seemed to have a preoccupation with death and the afterlife, and consequently took great regard to having the dead buried properly. In addition, since it is not possible to give each member of a society a proper burial in such a small area, the people must have had a hierarchical society in which some individuals had precedence over others for a glorious afterlife. As a place of worship, Stonehenge shows much detail and substance. Many of the celestial alignments put focus on things that are greater and more eternal than human beings, and these things could very well be the basis of the religion of the prehistoric cultures in the area. When seen from above, the lintels on the outer sarsen circle form a perfect circle that is impeccably level with the ground. Since this cannot be appreciated by people standing on the ground, it seems as if it is meant to be seen by someone above. (Niel, 33). The fixation with death and the afterlife among the peoples of Salisbury Plain seems to be a religion in itself. Perhaps the sun and moon gods, in being born and dying within their own cycles of rising and setting (and especially the moons cycle of growing dark and then bright again), could aid the soul of the human in being reborn in the afterlife. (Bragard, Ancient Voices). The strategy for showing their gods of their worth was clearly well thought-out and well planned by the builders and peoples of the Stone Age. The complexity and intelligence of the peoples of Stonehenge can also be seen in surrounding monuments created by them and their neighbors. Most of the enclosures and round barrows in the vicinity of Stonehenge were created for burial purposes, with one or two people buried within them, usually accompanied by valuables such as daggers, pottery, and in some cases, gold ornaments (Souden, 44). These treasures often represent high status or high political position, indicating a structured government and system of beliefs that the cultures of Salisbury Plain possessed. Stonehenge represents the evolving and changing society of prehistoric times that gradually changed into a well-developed society with rulers, priests, and a working and farming class, as well as relations with other cultures from far away with which to engage in trade and associate. The idea that men from the Stone Age were unintelligent, ill-mannered barbarians is far from the truth in the case of Stonehenge. The cultures of Windmill Hill, the Beaker people, and Wessex all thoroughly demonstrate organized systems and communities of the Stone and Bronze Ages. Ancient Voices: The Secret of Stonehenge. Dir. Jean-Claude Bragard. Narrator Mark Hammil. Videocassette. BBC/Time Life, 1998. Cohen, I.L. The Secret of Stonehenge. Greenvale, NY: New Research Publications, Inc., 1977. Dimitrakopoulos, Sandra. (2000). Mystic Places: Stonehenge, Online}. Available HTTP: http://exn.ca/mysticplaces/stonehenge.cfm. Hawkins, Gerald S. Stonehenge Decoded. New York: Doubleday, 1965. Mackie, Euan. The Megalith Builders. Oxford: Phaidon Press Ltd., 1977. Niel, Fernand. The Mysteries of Stonehenge. New York: Avon Books, 1975. Service, Alastair, and Jean Bradbery. Megaliths and Their Mysteries. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1979. Souden, David. Stonehenge Revealed. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1997. White, John B. Afterword. Stonehenge Decoded. By Gerald S. Hawkins. New York: Doubleday, 1965. 191-197. Bibliography:BIBLIOGRAPHYAncient Voices: The Secret of Stonehenge. Dir. Jean-Claude Bragard. Narrator Mark Hammil. Videocassette. BBC/Time Life, 1998. Cohen, I.L. The Secret of Stonehenge. Greenvale, NY: New Research Publications, Inc., 1977. Dimitrakopoulos, Sandra. (2000). Mystic Places: Stonehenge, Online}. Available HTTP: http://exn.ca/mysticplaces/stonehenge.cfm. Hawkins, Gerald S. Stonehenge Decoded. New York: Doubleday, 1965. Mackie, Euan. The Megalith Builders. Oxford: Phaidon Press Ltd., 1977. Niel, Fernand. The Mysteries of Stonehenge. New York: Avon Books, 1975. Service, Alastair, and Jean Bradbery. Megaliths and Their Mysteries. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1979. Souden, David. Stonehenge Revealed. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1997. White, John B. Afterword. Stonehenge Decoded. By Gerald S. Hawkins. New York: Doubleday, 1965. 191-197.

Thursday, March 12, 2020

All That Glitters is NOT Gold essays

All That Glitters is NOT Gold essays There were several themes associated with the novel Great Expectations. One of the most fascinating themes dealt with "infatuation and how it compares to and relates to love" ("Infatuation"). Infatuation is basically an obsession, or extravagant affection towards a person (Webster, 667). There is really no definite reason behind their passion, therefore this feeling is often short in duration and indicative of faulty judgement (Webster, 667). The person doesn't know what these feelings mean, this is normally why they mistake it for love. Love, on the other hand, is an intense affectionate concern for another person (Webster, 772). It is a more selfless and settled feeling. You can compare the difference between love and infatuation with the cliche "All that glitters is not gold", the glitter illusion being infatuation and the gold being love, the real thing. As a person grows and experiences their feelings with many other people, the distinction between love and infatuation b ecomes more clear. This is because the person can compare feelings they have experienced in the past, with their present feelings. In Great Expectations we see how Pip's infatuation for Estella is "short in duration" (Webster, 667), as most infatuations are. Despite the fact that Estella is arrogant and rude, Pip is not only infatuated with her beauty and wealth, but also almost envies it. In fact the humiliation Estella puts Pip through, causes Pip to feel very lowly of himself and the way he has been brought up. This causes Pip's expectations to change from expecting to be Joe's blacksmith apprentice, to studying to become a gentlemen noticed and admired by Estella. As years pass, Estella continues to play with Pip's heart, and Pip continues to unconditionally have feelings for her. Later, Estella marries a man named Bently Drummle, only causing Pip to, yet again, confess his love to Estella. Estella tells Pip "I know what you mean as form o...

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 17

Assignment - Essay Example The interest of the law is at the society at large and not on the individual who has committed a crime. Criminals are dangerous people in the society who threaten the social life of the community. These teenagers who are convicted of murder crimes are dangerous members of the society who are a threat to the community. The courts in their rulings will put the interest of the large community at hand and jail these criminals for life. These minors who commit these crimes are criminals in the making and can not be left free to disturb the public. These minors who commit these crimes can be pardoned for the charges, but this will encourage the other minors to commit such crimes since they know they can always get away with it. In regard to the same, other mature people can use the minors to commit murder crimes (Siegel & Senna, 147). The majority of the criminals in the world started their criminal activities when were young people. The earlier these criminal characteristics are noticed the better. The constitution is meant to protect the society at large and should be inclined towards the interest of an individual. These minor criminals, if pardoned and let to join the society they will become a bother to the society and a threat. Some human rights will argue that these are still children and should be given an opportunity to rejoin the society and become productive members of the same society. They argue that punishing these minors should be a process of rehabilitating them and making them law abiding citizens. They argue that these minors are in the process of development, and should be given a chance to contribute to the society and develop fully. They believe that some of these children’s behaviors will change at a later age. Some of these minors became violent as a result of how they were raised and the environment. However, these